APA / MLA Format

APA / MLA Format

  • APA Format

    What is APA Format?

    APA format is the common document style for natural or social science courses,
    including Psychology, Sociology, Economics, Criminology, Business and Nursing.

    Basic Formatting Guidelines

    • One inch (1") margins all around
    • Double space entire document
    • Use 12-point Times New Roman font
    • Left justify text
    • Include a header with a running head in the upper left corner and page number in the upper right corner
    • Center the title and capitalize the first letter of all the main words
    • Indent the beginning of each paragraph using one tab
    • Space twice after a period at the end of a sentence and space once after periods in a reference
    • citation

    Sections of Your Paper

    Most APA papers are divided into four (4) sections:
    • Title Page – Contains a header, title, author name and school
    • Abstract – Contains brief summary of your paper (150 to 250 words)
    • The Main Body – Includes the actual essay (If you are writing a lab report, your main body will be
    • broken down into further sections: introduction, method, results, and discussion sections)
    • References – Includes a list of all of the sources used in your paper
  • APA Format – Title Page

    APA Format - Title Page

    The title page includes:

    • Header with the running head and page number
      • Running head – short title (50 characters or fewer, including spaces), appears at the top of every page
      • First page only, running head preceded by the words Running head and a colon (On all other pages, just the running head itself and the page number appear, without the words Running head:)
    • Title (upper and lowercase letters, centered in the upper half of the page)
    • Your name
    • School name

    Note: For more information on setting up a paper in APA format, refer to the APA Publication Manual, pages 228-230.

    Information is based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th Edition. Individual
    instructor’s specifications may vary, so check with your instructor before formatting and submitting your work

    Still have questions? Come see us – SWC L401

  • APA Format – Abstract

    APA Format - Abstract

    The abstract page includes:

    • Header
    • Use the same running head as title page ½ inch from the top
    • shortened title in all caps, align left (drop Running head label)
    • page number 2, align right
    • Title
    • Center the title Abstract below the header
    • Abstract
    • Summarize your paper’s most important points
    • Accurately reflect the purpose and content of your paper
    • Be coherent
    • Remain objective

    Note: For more information on setting up a paper in APA format, refer to the APA Publication Manual, pages 228-230.
    Information is based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th Edition. Individual
    instructor’s specifications may vary, so check with your instructor before formatting and submitting your work.

  • APA Format – The Main Body

    APA Format – The Main Body

    Main Body

    The exact format of this section may vary depending upon the type of paper being writing.
    For example, a lab report main body could include:

    • Introduction (no heading)
    • Justifies the reasons for study/experiment
    • Introduces topic to the reader
    • Provides an overview of previous research on the topic
    • Identifies your own hypothesis
    • Describes the expected findings in experiment or study
    • Method
    • Provides the procedures used in research study or experiment
    • Provides detailed information on the research design, participants, equipment, materials,
    • variables, and actions taken by the participants (Provides enough information to allow other
    • researchers to replicate experiment/study)
    • Includes subheadings (e.g. Participants, Materials, Design, Procedure)
    • Results
    • Summarizes the data collected and statistical analyses performed
    • Reports the results without subjective interpretation
    • Discussion
    • Interprets and explains results. Are the results what was predicted? If not, why?

    Check with instructor for specific information to include in the main body of your APA paper.

    Note: For help setting up the body, refer to the APA Publication Manual, pages 180 – 215.

    Information is based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th Edition. Individual instructor’s specifications may vary, so check with your instructor before formatting and submitting your work.

    Still have questions? Come see us – SWC L401

  • APA In-Text Citations

    APA In-Text Citations

    What are APA In-Text Citations?

    An in-text citation is a brief reference (Author, date) in the body of your work used whenever you use another author’s words, facts, or ideas. All in-text citations will have a complete citation listed alphabetically in the Reference page.

    Place the source information (author, date, p.) in parentheses in the text of your paper. There are slight differences in format depending on how you are using the borrowed information.

    • Give the author’s last name and the publication year.
    • Only use page numbers for a direct quote.
    • Make sure the source information in parentheses matches your Reference page.
    • The punctuation for the sentence goes AFTER the parenthesis.
    • If your quote is longer than forty words, set it off in a block text by beginning a new line and indenting one inch. Do not add quotation marks. The citation is placed in parentheses at the end of the quote after the period or other punctuation.

    In-Text and Parenthetical Citation Examples

    • Quote with author’s name in text.

    Example: Smith (2006) states, “...” (p. 112).

    • Quote with author’s name in reference.

    Example: Statistics reveal “…” (Smith, 2006, pp. 112-4).

    • Paraphrasing with author’s name in text.

    Example: Smith (2006) stated these facts, too.

    • Paraphrasing author’s name in reference.

    Example: Recent trends indicate that … (Smith, 2006).

    • No author – give title of work abbreviated to first major word Italics for books, “quotation marks” for articles and webpages.

    Example: This book is helpful (Long, 2005) or This article is helpful (“Long,” 2005).

    • Citing entire website – put URL.

    Example: The evidence is overwhelming (www.pubmed.gov).

    • Quote from website – use paragraph number.

    Example: Evidence suggests that “…” (Smith, 2000, para. 4).

    • More than one author with same last name.

    Example: P. L. Smith (2003) and J. M. Smith (2005) assert….

    • Source has more than one author in text.

    Example: Smith and Lee (2006) agree that ….

    • Source has more than one author in reference.

    Example: This is the accepted theory (Smith & Long, 2006).

    • Citing more than one work.

    Example: Experts agree (Smith, 2006; Lee, 2004).

    • Citing more than one work by same author published in the same year.

    Example: The conclusion remains the same (Smith, 2006a; Smith, 2006b; Smith, 2006c). or Smith (2006a) believes .... or It has been reported ... (Smith, 2006c).

    Still have questions? Come see us – SWC L401

  • APA References Page

    APA References Page

    What is an APA References Page? A References page is a list of sources you quoted, paraphrased, or
    summarized in your paper; you must document, or cite, every borrowed word, idea, or fact by creating a list of References at the end of your paper.

    How do I format my References page?

    • References list begins on a new page at the end of your paper
    • Number it as the next page in your paper
    • Center title - References
    • Double space entire document
    • Entries listed alphabetically by the authors' last names (No author? Use the title to alphabetize)

    How should individual entries be formatted?

    • The first line of each entry is flush with the left margin
    • All other lines are indented five spaces to create a hanging indention
    • Space once after punctuation

    Note: For help citing individual sources, refer to the APA Publication Manual, pages 180 – 215. Information is based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th Edition. Individual
    instructor’s specifications may vary, so check with your instructor before formatting and submitting your work.

    Still have questions? Come see us – SWC L401

  • APA References Entry – Book (print or online)

    APA References Entry – Book

    Citations for books include:


    • Author’s name (initials are used for the first and middle names)
    • Year of publication (in parentheses)
    • Title of work italicized (capitalize only first word of the title, first word of subtitle, and proper nouns)
    • Publication information (city of publication and the publisher’s name)
    Example:
    • Skerry, P. J. (2009). Psycho in the shower: The history of cinema’s most famous scene. New York: Continuum.

    Citations for online version books include:


    • Author’s name (initials are used for the first and middle names)
    • Title of work italicized (capitalize only first word of title, the first word of subtitle, and proper nouns)
    • Type of e-book version
    • Digital Object Identifier (No DOI? Use URL where e-book was downloaded)
    Example:
    • Rowley, H. (2010). Franklin and Eleanor: An extraordinary marriage. [Kindle DX version]. Retrieved from http://amazon.com

    Note: For help citing individual sources, refer to the APA Publication Manual, pages 180 – 215.
    Information is based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th Edition. Individual
    instructor’s specifications may vary, so check with your instructor before formatting and submitting your work.

    Still have questions? Come see us – SWC L401

  • APA References Entry – Articles in Printed Periodicals

    APA References Entry – Articles in Printed Periodicals
    (newspapers, magazines, or scholarly journals)

    Citations for print articles include:

    • Author’s name (initials are used for the first and middle names)
    • Date of publication (in parentheses)
    • Title of article (capitalize only first word of the title, first word of subtitle, and proper nouns)
    • Title of work italicized with the first letter of all the main words capitalized
    • Volume number italicized; Issue number in parentheses
    • Page numbers (for newspaper articles, use the abbreviations p. or pp. preceding the page numbers)

    Examples:
    Chavez, L. (2006, March 30). American dreams, foreign flags. The New York Times, p. A25.Class distinctions. (2006, April). Psychology Today, 39(2), 21.
    Tumulty, K. (2006, April 10). Should they stay or should they go? Time, 167(15), 3-40.

    Note: For help citing articles, refer to the APA Publication Manual, pages 183 – 192.

    Information is based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th Edition. Individual instructor’s specifications may vary, so check with your instructor before formatting and submitting your work.

    Still have questions? Come see us – SWC L401

  • APA References Entry – Article from a Library Database

    APA References Entry – Article from a Library Database

    Citations for articles include:

    • Author’s name (initials are used for the first and middle names)
    • Date of publication (in parentheses)
    • Title of article (capitalize only the first word of the title and the subtitle and proper nouns)
    • Title of work italicized with the first letter of all the main words capitalized
    • Volume number italicized; Issue number in parentheses
    • Page numbers
    • Document Object Identifier (No DOI? Use URL where e-book was downloaded)

    Examples:
    Mishra, P. P., & Chauhanthe, N. T., (2012). Double outbreak of measles in the Talaja block of Bhavnagar district, Gujarat, India 2011: A need for improving the vaccine coverage and the community participation. Journal of Clinical & Diagnostic Research, 6(10), 1713-1717.
    doi:10.7860/JCDR/2012/4635.2628

    Malaiyan, J., & Menon, T. (2014). Low vaccine efficacy of mumps component among MMR vaccine
    recipients in Chennai, India. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 139(5), 773-775. Retrieved from
    http://www.icmr.nic.in/

    Note: For help citing individual sources, refer to the APA Publication Manual, pages 180 – 215.
    Information is based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th Edition. Individual instructor’s specifications may vary, so check with your instructor before formatting and submitting your work.

    Still have questions? Come see us – SWC L401

  • APA References Entry – Online Sources or Web Publications

    APA References Entry - Online Sources or Web Publications

    Citations for online articles include:

    • Author’s name (initials are used for the first and middle names) No author? Use the individual or
    • organization responsible for the information
    • Date of publication (Year, Month Day website was last updated in parentheses) If no date found, use n.d.
    • Title or description of page (capitalize only the first word of the title, the first word of subtitle, and
    • proper nouns)
    • DOI (No DOI? Use URL of the journal home page)

    Examples:
    Hypertension/high blood pressure center: Symptoms of high blood pressure. (2012, May 19.) Retrieved
    from http://www.webmd.com/hypertension-high-blood-pressure/guide/hypertension-symptomshigh-bloodpressure

    Tips to help you organize. (n.d.). Organize tips. Retrieved from
    http://www.organizetips.com/course2.htm#5d

    Note: For help citing individual sources, refer to the APA Publication Manual, pages 180 – 215.

    Information is based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th Edition. Individual instructor’s specifications may vary, so check with your instructor before formatting and submitting your work.

    Still have questions? Come see us – SWC L401

  • Annotated Bibliography: APA Style

    Annotated Bibliography: APA Style

    What is an Annotated Bibliography?

    An annotated bibliography contains a reference entry of a possible source followed by a short paragraph or summary (100 – 200 words) describing that work.

    To write an annotated bibliography:

    • Locate sources – from online databases, the library, and websites
    • Choose the sources - provide a wide variety of perspectives on the topic (article abstracts are helpful in this process)
    • Cite and annotate - include some or all of the following:
      • Purpose of the work
      • Summary of its content
      • Information about author(s)
      • Relevance to the topic
      • Special or unique features about the material
      • Research methodology
      • Strengths, weaknesses, or biases in the material

    Tip: Annotated bibliographies are arranged alphabetically by the authors’ last names.

    Note: For help with an annotated bibliography, refer to the APA Publication Manual, pages 180 – 215.

    Information is based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th Edition. Individual instructor’s specifications may vary, so check with your instructor before formatting and submitting your work.

    Still have questions? Come see us – SWC L401

  • MLA Format

    MLA Format

    What is MLA Format?

    MLA format is the common format your English instructors (and others) require you to use when writing an essay. It includes how to set up your page format and how to cite your sources.

    Basic Formatting Guidelines

    • One inch (1") margins all around
    • Double space entire document
    • Use 12-point, Times New Roman font
    • Left justify text
    • Include a header with your last name and page number in the upper right corner
    • Center title and capitalize first letter of all the main words
    • Indent first line of each paragraph using one tab

    Note: For help setting up your document in MLA format, refer to The MLA Style Center.

    Information is based on the The MLA Style Center, https://style.mla.org/formatting-papers/. Individual instructor’s
    specifications may vary, so check with your instructor before formatting and submitting your work.

    Still have questions? Come see us – SWC L401

  • MLA Works Cited Page

    MLA Works Cited Page

    What is the MLA Work Cited page?

    The Works Cited page is a list of sources you quoted, paraphrased, or
    summarized in your paper; you must document, or cite, borrowed words, ideas, or facts by creating a Works Cited
    list at the end of your paper.

    How do I format my Works Cited page?

    • Your Works Cited list begins on a new page at the end of your paper
    • Number your Works Cited as the next page in your paper
    • Center title--Works Cited
    • Double space entire document
    • Entries listed alphabetically by the authors' last names (No author? Use the title to alphabetize)

    How should individual entries be formatted?

    • The first line of each entry is flush with the left margin
    • All other lines are indented five spaces to create a hanging indention
    • Space once after all punctuation

    Note: For help citing individual sources, refer to MLA Handbook, pages 111-112.

    Information is based on the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 8th Edition. Individual instructor’s specifications may vary, so check with your instructor before formatting and submitting your work.

    Still have questions? Come see us – SWC L401

  • MLA Parenthetical Citations

    MLA Parenthetical Citations

    What are MLA Parenthetical Citations? An in-text citation, sometimes called a parenthetical citation, is a brief reference in the body of your work used whenever you use another author’s words, facts, or ideas. All in-text citations will have a complete citation listed alphabetically in the Works Cited page.

    General Guidelines for Print & Electronic Sources

    • References to sources in the text must correspond to the source information on the Works Cited page.
    • Be brief and clear. For print sources, include the author’s last name and a page reference in a parenthesis. If the author’s name is written in the sentence, use only the page number where you found the information in the parenthesis. No author? Cite the title or use a short form of the title and the page number.
    • Place the in-text citation as close as possible to the material being documented.
    • The in-text citation comes before the punctuation mark that ends the sentence, clause, or phrase that contains the cited material.

    Additional Guidelines for Electronic Sources

    • If a web source does not have page numbers, leave that portion of the citation blank.
    • Do not use page numbers assigned by the printer.
    • Sources that are PDF files have page numbers that are stable and should be included in the in-text citation.

    Note: For help with in-text citations, see the MLA Handbook, pages 54-58, Section 3.1 – 3.6.

    Information is based on the The MLA Style Center, https://style.mla.org/formatting-papers/. Individual instructor’s
    specifications may vary, so check with your instructor before formatting and submitting your work.

    Still have questions? Come see us – SWC L401

  • MLA Works Cited Entry — Online Sources or Web Publications

    MLA Works Cited Entry — Online Sources or Web Publications

    Citations for online sources or web publications include:

    • Author’s name (No author? Use the individual or organization responsible for the information)
    • Title of the article/webpage (capitalize first letter of all the main words)
    • Title of the overall website italicized (capitalize first letter of all the main words)
    • Publisher or sponsor of the site
    • Date of publication (copyright date if that is all that is available) (Day Month Year)
    • URL (leave off http:// and keep www. if part of URL)
    • Include date of access if no publication date is available (Accessed Day Month Year.)

    Example:
    Thompson, Carolyn. "Web Love Triangle Ends in a Tragedy." USA Today, 22 Jan. 2007,
    usatoday30.usatoday.com/tech/news/2007-01-22-web-love-triangle_x.htm.

    Note: For help citing online sources, refer to the MLA Handbook, pages 46-53. Information is based on the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 8th Edition. Individual instructor’s specifications may vary, so check with your instructor before formatting and submitting your work.

    Still have questions? Come see us – SWC L401

  • MLA Works Cited Entry — Article from a Library Database

    MLA Works Cited Entry — Article from a Library Database

    Citations for articles from a library database include:

    • Author’s name
    • Title of article in quotation marks (capitalize first letter of all the main words)
    • Title of journal, newspaper, or magazine italicized (capitalize first letter of all the main words)
    • Volume # and issue # for scholarly journal articles
    • Date of publication (Day Month Year)
    • Inclusive page numbers
    • Name of the database italicized (capitalize first letter of all the main words)
    • Location: URL or DOI (leave off http:// and keep www. if part of URL)

    Example:
    Trepanier, Lee. "The Need for Renewal: Nathaniel Hawthorne's Conservatism." Modern Age, vol. 45, no. 4, 2003,
    pp. 315-23. Academic Search Complete, doi: edsgcl.116790787.

    Note: For help citing library databases, refer to the MLA Handbook, pages 31-48.

    Information is based on the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 8th Edition. Individual instructor’s specifications may vary, so check with your instructor before formatting and submitting your work.

    Still have questions? Come see us – SWC L401

  • MLA Works Cited Entry — Book

    MLA Works Cited Entry — Book
    (Print or E-book)

    Citations for print books include:

    • Author’s name
    • Title of work italicized (capitalize first letter of all the main words)
    • Publication information (the publisher’s name and the year of publication)

    Example:
    Skerry, Philip J. Psycho in the Shower: The History of Cinema’s Most Famous Scene. Continuum, 2009.

    Citations for e-books include:

    • Author’s name
    • Title of work italicized (capitalize first letter of all the main words)
    • Publication information (the publisher’s name and the year of publication)
    • Location: URL or DOI (leave off http:// and keep www. if part of URL)

    Example:
    Rowley, Hazel. Franklin and Eleanor: An Extraordinary Marriage. Farrar, 2010,
    2348f00187b98a48ebacf43071ba30953ca37d2c.googledrive.com/host/0B5XjjBGDoIrhV0ozS2ppbDNlT1E/F
    ranklin-Eleanor-An-Extraordinary-Marriage-ebook-51I4VXDCtdL.pdf.

    Note: For help citing books, refer to the MLA Handbook, pages 46-48.

    Information is based on the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 8th Edition. Individual instructor’s specifications may vary, so check with your instructor before formatting and submitting your work.

    Still have questions? Come see us – SWC L401

  • MLA Works Cited Entry — Articles in Printed Periodicals (newspapers, magazines, or scholarly journals)

    MLA Works Cited Entry — Articles in Printed Periodicals
    (Newspapers, Magazines, or Scholarly Journals)

    Citations for articles from print sources include:

    • Author’s name
    • Title of article in quotation marks (capitalize first letter of all the main words)
    • Title of journal, newspaper, or magazine italicized (capitalize first letter of all the main words)
    • Volume # and issue # for scholarly journal articles (articles written by experts in a particular academic field)
    • Date of publication
    • Inclusive page numbers

    Examples:
    Brubaker, Bill. "New Health Center Targets County's Uninsured Patients." Caller Times, 24 May 2007, p. A5.
    Buchman, Dana. "A Special Education." Good Housekeeping, Mar. 2006, pp.143-48.
    Riedl, John. "Crowdfunding Technology Innovation." Computer, vol. 46, no. 3, 2013, pp.100-03.

    Note: For help citing book sources, refer to the MLA Handbook, page 30.

    Information is based on the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 8th Edition. Individual instructor’s specifications may vary, so check with your instructor before formatting and submitting your work.

    Still have questions? Come see us – SWC L401

  • Annotated Bibliography: MLA Style

    Annotated Bibliography: MLA Style

    What is an Annotated Bibliography?

    An annotated bibliography contains a works cited entry of a possible source followed by a short paragraph or summary (100 – 200 words) describing the work and how you will use it in your
    paper.

    To write an annotated bibliography:

    Cite and annotate - Depending on the purpose of your bibliography, some annotations may:

    • Summarize a source
    • Assess or evaluate a source
    • Reflect on the source’s possible uses
    • Discuss research methodology
    • Reflect on strengths, weaknesses, or biases in the material

    Consider the purpose of your annotated bibliography and/or your instructor’s directions when deciding how much information to include in your annotations.

    Tip: Annotated bibliographies are arranged alphabetically by the authors’ last names and are indented so that the author's last name is the only text that is flush left.

    Note: For information on formatting MLA citations, refer to MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 8th Edition. Individual instructor’s specifications may vary, so check with your instructor before formatting and submitting your work.

    Still have questions? Come see us – SWC L401

Page last updated June 19, 2018.